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Publisher's Foreword

Devotion to Task

Merkos L'Inyonei Chinuch & Machne Israel Must Not Falter

A Lifeline

Being Alive and Communicating Vitality

Yud-Beis Tammuz: To Be Every Inch a Chassid

The Month of Av: Mercy in Disguise

Chaf Menachem Av: Holding Tight to the Rebbe's Doorknob

Parshas Re'eh and Elul: Making One's Own Animal Kosher

A Letter for Chai Elul

Sharing with Paupers in Body and Soul

Chai Elul: A King in the Fields

United We Stand

A Letter to Yeshivah Students

Rosh HaShanah: A Healthy Nerve-Center for the Coming Year

Founders of Chassidism & Leaders of Chabad-Lubavitch

Glossary and Biographical Index

Proceeding Together Volume 2
Talks by the Lubavitcher Rebbe,
Rabbi Menachem M. Schneerson
After the Passing of the Previous Rebbe,
Rabbi Yosef Yitzchak Schneersohn
on Yud Shvat 5710 [1950]

Glossary and Biographical Index

Translated from Toras Menachem by Uri Kaploun

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  Founders of Chassidism & Leaders of Chabad-Lubavitch 

An asterisk indicates a cross-reference within this Glossary.
All non-English entries are Hebrew unless otherwise indicated.
For further definition of the terminology of Chassidus, see Rabbi Nissan Mindel, Glossary, in the Bi-Lingual Edition of Likutei Amarim -- Tanya (Kehot Publication Society; London, 1973), p. 774ff.; and Rabbi Jacob I. Schochet, Mystical Concepts in Chassidism, op. cit., p. 802ff.
Acharon shel Pesachthe Last Day of Passover
Afikomanthe last piece of matzah eaten at the Seder, in commemoration of the Paschal sacrifice
ahavas Yisraelloving a fellow Jew
Alter Rebbe's Shulchan Aruch, thesee *Shulchan Aruch HaRav
Amoraimpost-Mishnaic authorities cited in the *Gemara
Anash(acronym for anshei shlomeinu, lit., "men of our peace"; cf. Yirmeyahu 38:22, Ovadiah 1:7): cordial term used for the chassidic fraternity
Asiyah, the World of(lit., "the World of Action, or Making"): the lowest of the Four *Worlds
Atzilus, the World of(lit., "the World of Emanation"): the highest of the Four *Worlds
Avinu"our father" (used in reference to the Patriarchs)
avodah(lit., "work" or "service"): (in universal Torah usage) divine service, particularly through prayer (see *davenen) and (in chassidic usage) through the labor of self-refinement
beirurim(lit., "clarification"): the spiritual task of sifting and refining the materiality of the universe by using it according to the directives of the Torah and thereby elevating the Divine sparks embedded within it
Beis HaMikdashthe (First or Second) Temple in Jerusalem
beis midrashcommunal House of Study
berachah (pl., berachos)blessing or benediction
Beraisa (pl., beraisos; Aram.)tannaitic statement not included in the *Mishnah; see *Talmud
Beriah, the World of(lit., "the World of Creation"): the second (in descending order) of the Four *Worlds
Binah(lit., "understanding"): the second of the Ten *Sefiros, or Divine emanations; the second, gestative stage of the intellectual process (cf. *Chabad), developing the original, seminal concept (cf. *Chochmah) (cf. *Chabad), developing the initial conception of *Chochmah
briscovenant, esp. the covenant of circumcision
Chabad(acronym formed by the initial letters of the Heb. words Chochmah, Binah and Daas): (a) the branch of the chassidic movement (see *Chassidus) whose roots are in an intellectual approach to the service of G-d, and which was founded by R. Shneur Zalman of Liadi, the Alter Rebbe; a synonym for Chabad in this sense is *Lubavitch, the name of the township where the movement flourished 1813-1915; (b) the philosophy of this school of Chassidism
Chabadnik(colloq.:) adherent of Chabad
chassan bridegroom
chassid (pl., chassidim)adherent of the chassidic movement (see *Chassidus)
Chassidismsee *Chassidus
Chassidus(a) Chassidism, i.e., the movement within Orthodox Judaism founded in White Russia by R. Yisrael, the Baal Shem Tov (1698-1760), and stressing: emotional involvement in prayer; service of G-d through the material universe; wholehearted earnestness in divine service; the mystical in addition to the legalistic dimension of Judaism; the power of joy, and of music; the love to be shown to every Jew, unconditionally; and the mutual physical and moral responsibility of the members of the informal chassidic brotherhood, each chassid having cultivated a spiritual attachment to their saintly mentor, the *Rebbe; (b) the philosophy and literature of this movement; see also *Chabad
Chessed(lit., "lovingkindness"): the first of the seven Divine middos, or attributes, and of their corresponding mortal middos, or spiritual emotions
Chochmah(lit., "wisdom"): the first of the Ten *Sefiros, or divine emanations; the first stage of the intellectual process (cf. *Chabad); reason in potentia
Daas(lit., "knowledge"): the third of the Ten *Sefiros, or divine emanations; the third stage of the intellectual process (cf. *Chabad), at which concepts, having proceeded from seminal intuition (cf. *Chochmah) through meditative gestation (cf. *Binah), now mature into their corresponding dispositions or attributes of character (middos)
daven, davenen(Yid.): (a) praying, prayers; in *Chabad usage also signifies (b) the *avodah of praying at length, the reading of passages in the *Siddur being interspersed with pauses for disciplined meditation from memory on related texts in *Chassidus
deoraysa(Aram.): (of a mitzvah:) explicitly commanded in the Torah
derushthe non-literal, homiletic interpretation of Scripture, as in the *Midrash or Talmudic aggados
Ein Sof the Infinite One
Ein Sof-lightthe [infinite] creative and enlightening emanation that radiates from the Infinite One
Eliyahu HaNavithe Prophet Elijah
Eretz Yisraelthe Land of Israel
erev(lit., "evening" or "eve of"): when introducing another word (such as "Pesach") it can mean either (a) the evening with which the specified holy day begins or (b) the day that ends with the onset of the holy day at sunset
Etzeman entity which is one integral essence
farbrengen(Yid.): (a) an assemblage addressed by the Rebbe; (b) an informal gathering of chassidim for mutual and brotherly edification
galusexile; Diaspora
Gan Edenthe Garden of Eden
gashmiyusmateriality; material reality (cf. *ruchniyus)
Gemara(Aram.): see *Talmud
gematria(Aram.): the numerical value of the letters that comprise a word in the Holy Tongue, and the derivation of insights therefrom
Haftorah(lit., "final passage"): the passage from the Prophets read in the synagogue after the reading from the Chumash (cf. Siddur Tehillat HaShem, p. 187)
Halachah(a) the body of Torah law; (b) a particular law
hamshachahthe eliciting or drawing down of Divine energy
hashpaah (pl., hashpaos)downward flow of Divine blessings, spiritual energy and illumination
Havayahthe Four-Letter Name of G-d as commonly pronounced in the study of *Chassidus
hemshech (pl., hemsheichim)a series of *maamarim
hiddur mitzvah (pl., hiddurim)(lit., "embellishment"): enhancement or meticulous observance of a *mitzvah beyond the demands of the letter of the law
Hilchos...the laws of...
Hishtalshelus (orSeder Hishtalshelus;): the chainlike scheme of gradual descent whereby the Divine light progressively screens itself on its way from ethereal spirituality to apparent substantiality
hiskashrusthe bond between chassid (see *Chassidus) and *Rebbe
histalkuspassing [of a tzaddik]
Iggeres HaKodesh(lit., "The Holy Letter"): part of *Tanya, consisting of pastoral letters addressed by the Alter Rebbe to the chassidic community
ikvesa diMeshicha (also ikvos Meshicha; Aram.)the [generation that can hear the approaching] "footsteps of *Mashiach"
Kabbalah(lit., "received tradition"): the body of classical Jewish mystical teachings, the central text of which is the *Zohar
kabbalas ol(lit., "the acceptance of [G-d's] yoke"): an unswerving, selfless commitment to carrying out the Will of G-d
kashrusstate of being *kosher
kavanosmystical themes for devout meditation during prayer and the observance of the *mitzvos
keitz(lit., "end"): a particularly auspicious time for *Mashiach to bring the exile to an end
kelipos(lit., "rind" or "shell"; pl. of kelipah): used figuratively (on a personal or cosmic level) to signify an outer covering which conceals the light within; hence, the unholy side of the universe
Kiddush(lit., "sanctification"): blessings recited over a goblet of wine and expressing the sanctity of *Shabbos or a festival
kitrugan accusatory voice in the Heavenly Court
kochos makkifimthe transcendent faculties of the soul
kochos pnimiyimthe internalized, conscious faculties of the soul
Kohen (pl., Kohanim)"priest"; i.e., a descendant of Aharon
kosherritually fit for use or valid (cf. *kashrus)
Lag BaOmerthe thirty-third day of the Omer, a minor festival falling between Pesach and Shavuos
LeChaim!(lit., "To life!"): toast or blessing exchanged over strong drink
Likkutei Toraha classic collection of chassidic discourses by the Alter Rebbe
Lubavitch(lit., "town of love"; Rus.): townlet in White Russia which from 1813-1915 was the center of *Chabad *Chassidism, and whose name has remained a synonym for it
maamar (pl., maamarim)(lit., "word" or "[written] article"): in Chabad circles means a formal chassidic discourse first delivered by a *Rebbe
Maariv (also called Arvis)evening prayer service (Siddur Tehillat HaShem, p. 106)
makkifthe transcendent dimension of the soul that is not consciously vested in the body
Mashiach(lit., "the anointed one"): Messiah
mashpia (pl., mashpi'im)mentor who guides chassidim in the teachings and spiritual lifestyle of *Chassidus
mesirus nefesh(lit., "sacrifice of the soul"): the willingness to sacrifice oneself, either through martyrdom, or through a selfless life, for the sake of the Torah and its commandments
middos (pl. of middah)(a) attributes of character; spiritual emotions (e.g., the love or awe of G-d); mental states; (b) the Divine Attributes (e.g., Mercy)
Midrashany one of the classical collections of the Sages' homiletical teachings on the Torah, on the non-literal level of *derush
Minchahafternoon prayer service (Siddur Tehillat HaShem, p. 96)
Mishnahthe germinal statements of law elucidated by the *Gemara, together with which they constitute the *Talmud
mishnayosindividual passages from the *Mishnah; see *Talmud
Mishneh Torahthe encyclopedic codification by Rambam (Maimonides) of all the laws of the Written and Oral Torah; also known as HaYad HaChazakah
mitzvah (pl., mitzvos)a religious obligation; one of the 613 Commandments
Nasi (pl., Nesi'im)(a) in Biblical times, the head of any one of the Twelve Tribes; (b) in later generations, the civil and/or spiritual head of the Jewish community at large
nazirone who sets himself apart for divine service by undertaking certain ascetic restrictions; cf. Bamidbar 6:1-21
Nefesh(a) soul; (b) the lowest of the five levels of the soul (cf. Bereishis Rabbah 14:9)
Neshamah(a) soul; (b) the third (in ascending order) of the five levels of the soul (cf. Bereishis Rabbah 14:9)
neshamah klalisthe comprehensive soul of a *Rebbe which is bonded with the souls of all the Jews of his generation
Nesi'imsee *Nasi
niggun (pl., niggunim)melody, usually wordless, especially one figuring in divine service
nigleh(lit., "revealed"): the revealed levels of the Torah (e.g., *Talmud and *Halachah); in contrast to *nistar
nistar(lit., "hidden"): the mystical levels of the Torah (e.g., *Kabbalah and *Chassidus); in contrast to *nigleh
Nu(Yid.): untranslatable multipurpose word used in conversation (cf., in English, "Well!...") to express a variety of reactions, varying with intonation
Ohel(lit., "tent"; synonym: tziyun): in chassidic usage means the structure built over the resting place of a tzaddik, and frequented by chassidim in prayer
parshah (pl., parshiyos)portion of the Torah read publicly each week
Parshas...the Parshah of [a certain Shabbos or festive occasion]
pidyon [nefesh](abbreviated pei nun; lit., "redemption of the soul"): note, accompanied by donation for charity, in which the writer requests the Rebbe to intercede in prayer on behalf of himself or of another person named therein
pnimi(lit., "inward"): a man of inner integrity
pnimiyusthe innermost, mystical dimension [of the Torah]
pnimiyus haTorahthe innermost, mystical dimension of the Torah; cf. *nistar
Rambam(Heb. acronym: Rabbi Moshe ben Maimon, 1135-1204):Maimonides, one of the foremost Jewish thinkers of the Middle Ages; his Mishneh Torah is one of the pillars of Jewish law, and his Guide to the Perplexed, one of the classics of Jewish philosophy
Rashbi(Heb. acronym: Rabbi Shimon bar Yochai, mid-2nd cent. C.E.): prominent *Tanna and author of the *Zohar
Rashi(Heb. acronym: Rabbi Shlomo Yitzchaki, 1040-1105, foremost commentator on the Torah and *Talmud)
ratzothe passionate desire of the soul to "run forward" and cleave to its Source (as opposed to shov, which is its sober determination to return and fulfill its mission in the body)
rav (pl., rabbanim)rabbi, Torah teacher
Rebbe(common Yid. pronunciation of Rebbe, "my teacher [or master]"; pl., Rebbeim): *tzaddik who serves as spiritual guide to a following of chassidim; see *Chassidus
Rosh Chodesh (pl., Rashei Chadashim)(lit., "head of the month"): New Moon, i.e., one or two semi-festive days at the beginning of the month
Rosh HaShanah(lit., "head of the year"): the New Year festival, falling on 1 and 2 Tishrei
Ruach(lit., "spirit"): (a) soul; (b) the second (in ascending order) of the five levels of the soul (cf. Bereishis Rabbah 14:9)
ruach hakodeshDivine inspiration
ruchniyusspirituality; spiritual reality (cf. *gashmiyus)
sefera [sacred] book
Sefer Torah (pl., Sifrei Torah)Torah scroll
Sefirah (pl., Sefiros)divine attributes or emanations which manifest themselves in each of the Four Worlds, and are the source of the corresponding ten faculties (kochos) of the soul
Shabbos (pl., Shabbasos)the Sabbath
Shabbos Parshas...the *Shabbos on which a [named] *parshah is read
Shacharisthe morning prayer service (Siddur Tehillat HaShem, p. 12ff.)
Shas(acronym of shishah sidrei mishneh; lit., "the Six Orders of the Mishnah"): the *Talmud in its entirety
Shechinahthe Divine Presence
Shemoneh Esreh(lit., "eighteen [benedictions]"): prayer (also known as Amidah) which is the solemn climax of each of the three daily services (Siddur Tehillat HaShem, p. 50)
Shlitaabbreviation placed after a person's name, expressing the wish "that he be preserved in life for many good days"
Shofarram's horn sounded on *Rosh HaShanah
shov(lit., "return"): see *ratzo
shul(Yid.): synagogue
Shulchan Aruch(lit., "a set table"): the standard Code of Jewish Law compiled by R. Yosef Caro in the mid-sixteenth century
Shulchan Aruch HaRav(lit., "the Shulchan Aruch of the Rabbi"): the edition of the Code of Jewish Law compiled by the Alter Rebbe (see the table of Founders of Chassidism and Leaders of Chabad-Lubavitch)
sichah (pl., sichos)an informal Torah talk delivered by a Rebbe (cf. *maamar)
Siddur(lit., "order [of prayers]"): prayer book; page references in the present work are to the edition (with English translation) entitled Siddur Tehillat HaShem (Kehot, N.Y., 1979)
sitra achra(lit., "the other side"; Aram.): that aspect of the universe which is opposite to the aspect of holiness; the forces of evil
siyyum(lit., "conclusion"): celebration marking one's completion of a Talmudic tractate
sodthe level of Torah interpretation that plumbs its Kabbalistic or mystical depths
Tachanunthe penitential prayers recited on all non-festive days (Siddur Tehillat HaShem, p. 61)
takkanos (pl. of takkanah)halachic sublaws ordained by the Sages of the various generations
talmid chacham (pl., talmidei chachamim)Torah scholar of standing
Talmudthe basic compendium of Jewish law, thought, and Biblical commentary; its tractates mainly comprise the discussions collectively known as the Gemara, which elucidate the germinal statements of law (mishnayos) collectively known as the Mishnah; when unspecified refers to the Talmud Bavli, the edition developed in Babylonia, and edited at end of the fifth century C.E.; the Talmud Yerushalmi is the edition compiled in Eretz Yisrael at end of the fourth century C.E.
tamimsee *temimim
Tanachacronym for Torah (i.e., the Five Books of Moses), Nevi'im (the Prophets), and Kesuvim (the Writings; i.e., the Hagiographa)
Tanna (pl., Tannaim)authority of the 1st-2nd. cents. quoted in the *Mishnah
Tanyathe Alter Rebbe's basic exposition of *Chabad *Chassidus; "Tanya" is the initial word of the book, which is also called Likkutei Amarim ("Collected Discourses") and Sefer Shel Beinonim ("The Book of the Intermediates")
Tehillim(lit., "praises"): the Book of Psalms
temimim (pl. of tamim)students past or present of one of the senior yeshivos (known as Tomchei Temimim) of the *Lubavitch branch of *Chassidism
teshuvah(lit., "return [to G-d]"): repentance
tikkun (pl., tikkunim)the process of refining, restituting and rehabilitating the materiality of this world
Tomchei Temimim(a) the *yeshivah founded in *Lubavitch in 1897 by the Rebbe Rashab; (b) one of its subsequent offshoots
tzaddik (pl., tzaddikim)(a) completely righteous individual (b) *Rebbe
tzimtzumthe self-limitation of the infinite and emanating Divine light by progressive degrees of contraction, condensation and concealment, and making possible the creation of finite and physical substances
tziyun(lit., "monument"): see *Ohel
Worlds, the Fourthe main stages in the creative process resulting from the progressive self-screening of the Divine light known as tzimtzum; in descending order: Atzilus, Beriah, *Yetzirah and *Asiyah, often referred to by their acronym as Abiya
Yechidahthe highest and innermost of the five levels of the soul (cf. Bereishis Rabbah 14:9), the level at which the soul is in absolute unity with G-d
yechidusprivate interview (rather: an encounter of souls) at which a chassid seeks guidance and enlightenment from his *Rebbe
yeshivahRabbinical academy
Yetzer HaRathe Evil Inclination
Yetzirah, the World of(lit., "the World of Formation"): the third (in descending order) of the Four *Worlds
Yiddishkeit(lit., "Jewishness"; Yid.): the Torah way of life
YisraelIsrael; the Jewish people
Yom Kippurthe Day of Atonement, fast day falling on 10 Tishrei and climaxing the Days of Awe
Yom-Tova festival
Yud-Beis and Yud-Gimmel Tammuz("the twelfth and thirteenth of [the month of] Tammuz"): chassidic festival marking the birthday of the Rebbe Rayatz and his release from capital sentence and imprisonment in Soviet Russia in 1927
Zohar(lit., "radiance"): classical work embodying the mystical teachings of the *Kabbalah

  Founders of Chassidism & Leaders of Chabad-Lubavitch 
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